Medial fronto-facial capillary malformations.
Publish Date: December 16, 2010
To evaluate the characteristics of facial medial capillary malformations (CM), which differ from salmon patches by their wider extent, darker color, and incomplete resolution.
Children were prospectively recruited from pediatric dermatology clinics and retrospectively from clinical and photographic databases.
From June 2006 to June 2008, 84 children (56 girls; 66.6%) were included. The medial fronto-FCM (FFCM) involved the forehead and glabella (100%), upper eyelids (57.1%), nose (66.6%), philtrum (50.0%), and upper lip (22.6%). Extended forms were observed in 26.2%. A similar FFCM was observed within the family in 27.3% of cases. Outcome data showed complete regression in 10%, incomplete in 71.1%, and unchanging in 18%. An association with an extra facial CM was found 67.8%. Nape and/or occipital CM were associated in 63.8%. A median dorsal CM, mostly lumbosacral, was observed in 13.4%. An associated disease was seen in 33.3%. Neurological anomalies were observed in 9.5% (two cases of developmental delay, two of epilepsy, one of macrocephaly, one of cerebral arteriovenous malformation, one of cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, one of “macrocephaly- cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita,” and one of Rubinstein Taybi syndrome). No correlation between the site or the extent of the FFCM and extrafacial vascular or neurological anomaly was found.
This study identifies a specific type of congenital medial FFCM that looks like salmon patch but has a wider median topography, a darker color, with slower and often incomplete resolution. Family cases are often observed. Despite their slow and incomplete regression, the aesthetic consequences are mild.